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In addition to graphical symbols, tables or equations, flip-flops can also be represented graphically by a state diagram. In this diagram, a state is represented by a circle, and the transition between states is indicated by directed lines (or arcs) connecting the circles. An example of a state diagram is shown in Figure below.
The binary number inside each circle identifies the state the circle represents. The directed lines are labeled with two binary numbers separated by a slash (/). The input value that causes the state transition is labeled first. The number after the slash symbol / gives the value of the output. For example, the directed line from state 00 to 01 is labeled 1/0, meaning that, if the sequential circuit is in a present state and the input is 1, then the next state is 01 and the output is 0. If it is in a present state 00 and the input is 0, it will remain in that state. A directed line connecting a circle with itself indicates that no change of state occurs. The state diagram provides exactly the same information as the state table and is obtained directly from the state table.
The De-Morgan’s first law states that, “The negation of conjunction is the disjunction of the negations” i.e.
(A.B)’ = A’ + B’
(A.B.C)’ + A’ + B’ + C’
The De-Morgan’s second law states that, “The negation of disjunction is the conjunction of the negations” i.e.
(A + B)’ = A’ . B’
(A + B + C)’ + A’ . B’ . C’
The Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) is a logic family made up of BJTs (bipolar junction transistors). As the name suggests, the transistor performs two functions like logic as well as amplifying. The best examples of TTL are logic gates namely the 7402 NOR Gate & the 7400 NAND gate.
TTL logic includes several transistors that have several emitters as well as several inputs.
The characteristics of TTL include the following.
The advantage of TTL are
The disadvantage of TTL are
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