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When one by one study of all units of a population is not possible due to some factors like time, cost, manpower, resources and destructive nature of study, we take a small representative part from the population for the study. This small represenatative part selected for the study from the population is called sample.
The process of selecteding a sample from a population is called sampling.
For Example: A pathologist takes a syringe of blood as a sample to find out a disease.
Difference between strtified and cluster sampling:
|BASIS||STRATIFIED SAMPLING||CLUSTER SAMPLING|
|Meaning||Stratified sampling is one, in which the population is divided into homogeneous segments, and then the sample is randomly taken from the segments.||Cluster sampling refers to a sampling method wherein the members of the population are selected at random, from naturally occurring groups called ‘cluster’.|
|Sample||Randomly selected individuals are taken from all the strata.||All the individuals are taken from randomly selected clusters.|
|Selection of population elements||Individually||Collectively|
|Homogeneity||Within group||Between groups|
|Heterogeneity||Between groups||Within group|
|Bifurcation||Imposed by the researcher||Naturally occurring groups|
|Objective||To increase precision and representation.||To reduce cost and improve efficiency.|
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