What is switching? Compare and contrast a circuit-switched network and packet-switched network.

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Switching is the mechanism in computer networks that helps in deciding the best route for data transmission if there are multiple paths in a larger network.

Larger networks may have multiple routes to link the sender and receiver. So whenever we send any information between the sender and receiver then the information switches through multiple routes.

Whenever we send information from one device to another, that information does not directly reach that device, there are many intermediate nodes in the middle, and the information switch through these nodes.

The comparision between Packet switching and Circuit Switching are

Circuit Switching Packet Switching
In-circuit switching has there are 3 phases:
i) Connection Establishment.
ii) Data Transfer.
iii) Connection Released.
In Packet switching directly data transfer takes place.
In-circuit switching, each data unit knows the entire path address which is provided by the source. In Packet switching, each data unit just knows the final destination address intermediate path is decided by the routers.
In-Circuit switching, data is processed at the source system only In Packet switching, data is processed at all intermediate nodes including the source system.
The delay between data units in circuit switching is uniform. The delay between data units in packet switching is not uniform.
Resource reservation is the feature of circuit switching because the path is fixed for data transmission. There is no resource reservation because bandwidth is shared among users.
Circuit switching is more reliable. Packet switching is less reliable.
Wastage of resources is more in Circuit Switching Less wastage of resources as compared to Circuit Switching
It is not a store and forward technique. It is a store and forward technique.
Transmission of the data is done by the source. Transmission of the data is done not only by the source but also by the intermediate routers.
Congestion can occur during the connection establishment phase because there might be a case where a request is being made for a channel but the channel is already occupied. Congestion can occur during the data transfer phase, a large number of packets comes in no time.
Circuit switching is not convenient for handling bilateral traffic. Packet switching is suitable for handling bilateral traffic.
In-Circuit switching, the charge depends on time and distance, not on traffic in the network. In Packet switching, the charge is based on the number of bytes and connection time.
Recording of packets is never possible in circuit switching. Recording of packets is possible in packet switching.
In-Circuit Switching there is a physical path between the source and the destination In Packet Switching there is no physical path between the source and the destination
Circuit Switching does not support store and forward transmission Packet Switching supports store and forward transmission
Call setup is required in circuit switching. No call setup is required in packet switching.
In-circuit switching each packet follows the same route. In packet switching packets can follow any route.
The circuit switching network is implemented at the physical layer. Packet switching is implemented at the datalink layer and network layer
Circuit switching requires simple protocols for delivery. Packet switching requires complex protocols for delivery.
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