Write short notes on (any two):

  1. Connection-oriented service
  2. Bridge
  3. Hamming distance


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Coneection Oriented Service:

A connection-oriented service is a technique used to transport data at the session layer. Unlike its opposite, connnectionless service, connection-oriented service requires that a session connection be established between the sender and receiver, analogous to a phone call. This method is normally considered to be more reliable than a connectionless service, although not all connection-oriented protocols are considered reliable.

A connection-oriented service can be a circuit-switched connection or a virtual circuit connection in a packet-switched network. For the latter, traffic flows are identified by a connection identifier, typically a small integer of 10 to 24 bits. This is used instead of listing the destination and source addresses.


A bridge is a type of computer network device that provides interconnection with other bridge networks that use the same protocol.

Bridge devices work at the data link layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model, connecting two different networks together and providing communication between them. Bridges are similar to repeaters and hubs in that they broadcast data to every node. However, bridges maintain the media access control (MAC) address table as soon as they discover new segments, so subsequent transmissions are sent to only to the desired recipient.

Bridges are also known as Layer 2 switches.

Hamming distance:

Hamming distance is a metric for comparing two binary data strings. While comparing two binary strings of equal length, Hamming distance is the number of bit positions in which the two bits are different.

The Hamming distance between two strings, a and b is denoted as d(a,b).

It is used for error detection or error correction when data is transmitted over computer networks. It is also using in coding theory for comparing equal length data words.

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