Write different generations of operating system in detail.

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Operating Systems have evolved over the years. So, their evolution through the years can be mapped using generations of operating systems. There are five generations of operating systems. These can be described as follows −

a) Zeros Generation: (1940 – 1945)

Early computing systems had no operating system. Users had complete access to the machine language. They hand-coded all instructions.

a) First Generation:

Year : 1945 – 1955

Electronic devices used : Vaccum Tubes

Types of OS and devices: Plug Board

b) Second Generation:

Year : 1955 – 1965

Electronic devices used : Transisitors

Types of OS and devices: Batch Systems

c) Third Generation:

Year : 1965 – 1980

Electronic devices used : ICs

Types of OS and devices: Multiprogramming

d) Fourth Generation:

Year : 1980 – Present

Electronic devices used : LSI

Types of OS and devices: Personal Computers

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