What is Kernel in OS explain it functionality.


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A Kernel is a computer program that is the heart and core of an Operating System. Since the Operating System has control over the system so, the Kernel also has control over everything in the system. Kernel is the most important part of an Operating System. Whenever a system starts, the Kernel is the first program that is loaded after the bootloader because the Kernel has to handle the rest of the thing of the system for the Operating System. The Kernel remains in the memory until the Operating System is shut-down.

The kernel is basically a computer program usually considered as a central component or module of OS. It is responsible for handling, managing, and controlling all operations of computer systems and hardware. Whenever the system starts, the kernel is loaded first and remains in the main memory. It also acts as an interface between user applications and hardware.

Functions of Kernel

The Kernel is responsible for low-level tasks such as disk management, memory management, task management, etc. It provides an interface between the user and the hardware components of the system. When a process makes a request to the Kernel, then it is called System Call.

  • Access Computer resource: It is responsible for managing all computer resources such as CPU, memory, files, processes, etc. It acts as a bridge between the user and the resources of the system.
  • Resource Management: It facilitates or initiates the interaction between components of hardware and software.
  • Memory Management: It manages RAM memory so that all running processes and programs can work effectively and efficiently.
  • Device Management: The peripheral devices connected in the system are used by the processes. So, the allocation of these devices is managed by the Kernel.
  • It also controls and manages all primary tasks of the OS as well as manages access and use of various peripherals connected to the computer.
  • It schedules the work done by the CPU so that the work of each user is executed as efficiently as possible.


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