How cooperative processes communicate with each other ? Explain methods of Inter process communication(IPC).


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The cooperating processes can cooperate with each other using messages. This may lead to deadlock if each process is waiting for a message from the other to perform a operation.

Methods in Interprocess Communication

There are several different ways to implement IPC. IPC is set of programming interfaces, used by programs to communicate between series of processes. This allows running programs concurrently in an Operating System. Below are the methods in IPC:

  1. Pipes (Same Process) 
    This allows flow of data in one direction only. Analogous to simplex systems (Keyboard). Data from the output is usually buffered until input process receives it which must have a common origin.
  2. Names Pipes (Different Processes) 
    This is a pipe with a specific name it can be used in processes that don’t have a shared common process origin. E.g. is FIFO where the details written to a pipe is first named.
  3. Message Queuing 
    This allows messages to be passed between processes using either a single queue or several message queue. This is managed by system kernel these messages are coordinated using an API.
  4. Semaphores 
    This is used in solving problems associated with synchronization and to avoid race condition. These are integer values which are greater than or equal to 0.
  5. Shared memory 
    This allows the interchange of data through a defined area of memory. Semaphore values have to be obtained before data can get access to shared memory.
  6. Sockets 
    This method is mostly used to communicate over a network between a client and a server. It allows for a standard connection which is computer and OS independent.
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