Explain RTL and TTL  gates. How memory and clock circuits can be made by using these gates? Explain how they work?

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Register Transistor Logic(RTL):

RTL is a class of digital circuits built using resistors as the input network and bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) as switching devices.

The RTL circuit consists of resistors at inputs and transistors at the output side. Transistors are used as the switching device. The emitter of the transistor is connected to the ground. The collector terminals are tied together and given to the supply through the resistor RC. The collector resistor is known as a passive pull-up resistor.

Transistor Transistor Logic(TTL):

Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) is a digital logic design in which bipolar transistor s act on direct-current pulses. Many TTL logic gate s are typically fabricated onto a single integrated circuit (IC). TTL ICs usually have four-digit numbers beginning with 74 or 54.

There are two types of RTL logic now, one is antique, Resistor Transistor Logic, the other is widely used now for design, Register Transfer Level.

The old RTL used a combination of resistors and bipolar transistors to construct inverters, OR, NOR and other basic logic gates. Register Transfer Level is used to take code and transfer it into hardware logic. A single line of RTL script can result in hundreds of logic components.

TTL is Transistor Transistor Logic, similar to RTL but replacing most of the resistors with transistors.

TTL is the more modern logic family and was used until about the 1990s when everything converted to CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ) logic. CMOS has the advantage of much lower current and more robust noise rejection than TTL.

All of these families are used to make digital circuits. Any logic function can be implemented with a single type of gate, such as a NOR or NAND gate.

A group of four or more NOR gates can make a flip-flop, or simple memory. A series of flip-flops can take the 60Hz line frequency, divide by 60 and make a clock which increments every second. A series of more dividers make the minute and hour indicators.

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