What is deadlock? Explain different conditions for deadlock.

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Deadlock is a situation where a set of processes are blocked because each process is holding a resource and waiting for another resource acquired by some other process.

Deadlock can arise if the following four conditions hold simultaneously (Necessary Conditions) 
Mutual Exclusion: Two or more resources are non-shareable (Only one process can use at a time)
Hold and Wait: A process is holding at least one resource and waiting for resources.
No Preemption: A resource cannot be taken from a process unless the process releases the resource.
Circular Wait: A set of processes are waiting for each other in circular form.

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