a) Protocol and Standards:
A network protocol is an established set of rules that determine how data is transmitted between different devices in the same network. Essentially, it allows connected devices to communicate with each other, regardless of any differences in their internal processes, structure, or design.
There are thousands of different network protocols, but they all perform one of three primary actions:
- Network management
Standards are the set of rules for data communication that are needed for the exchange of information among devices. It is important to follow Standards that are created by various Standard Organizations like IEEE, ISO, ANSI, etc.
Standards are of two types :
- De Facto Standard.
- De Jure Standard.
- When a user accesses the internet or another computer network outside their immediate location, messages are sent through the network of transmission media. This technique of transferring information from one computer network to another network is known as switching.
- Switching in a computer network is achieved by using switches. A switch is a small hardware device that is used to join multiple computers together with one local area network (LAN).
- Network switches operate at layer 2 (Data link layer) in the OSI model.
- Switching is transparent to the user and does not require any configuration in the home network.
- Switches are used to forward the packets based on MAC addresses.
- A Switch is used to transfer the data only to the device that has been addressed. It verifies the destination address to route the packet appropriately.
- It is operated in full duplex mode.
- Packet collision is minimum as it directly communicates between source and destination.
- It does not broadcast the message as it works with limited bandwidth.
- In the checksum error detection scheme, the data is divided into k segments each of m bits.
- At the sender’s end, the segments are added using 1’s complement arithmetic to get the sum. The sum is complemented to get the checksum.
- The checksum segment is sent along with the data segments.
- At the receiver’s end, all received segments are added using 1’s complement arithmetic to get the sum. The sum is complemented.
- If the result is zero, the received data is accepted; otherwise discarded.