What is the database? How does it differ from the traditional file systems?

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A database is an organized collection of structured information, or data, typically stored electronically in a computer system.

The difference between database and file systems are

Basis File System Database
Structure The file system is software that manages and organizes the files in a storage medium within a computer. The database is software for managing the database.
Data Redundancy Redundant data can be present in a file system. In the Database, there is no redundant data.
Backup and Recovery It doesn’t provide backup and recovery of data if it is lost. It provides backup and recovery of data even if it is lost.
Query processing There is no efficient query processing in the file system. Efficient query processing is there in the database.
Consistency There is less data consistency in the file system. There is more data consistency because of the process of normalization.
Complexity It is less complex as compared to database. It has more complexity in handling as compared to the file system.
Security Constraints File systems provide less security in comparison to DBMS. Database has more security mechanisms as compared to file systems.
Cost It is less expensive than the database. It has a comparatively higher cost than a file system.
Data Independence There is no data independence. In the Database, data independence exists.
User Access Only one user can access data at a time. Multiple users can access data at a time.
Meaning The user has to write procedures for managing databases The user is not required to write procedures.
Sharing Data is distributed in many files. So, not easy to share data Due to its centralized nature sharing is easy
Data Abstraction It gives details of storage and representation of data It hides the internal details of the Database
Integrity Constraints Integrity Constraints are difficult to implement Integrity constraints are easy to implement
Example Cobol, C++ Oracle, SQL Server
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