Briefly describe the generations of computer.

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The development of computer systems is normally discussed as the development over different generations.

With the succession of different generations, came the advancement in computer technology.

Types of Computer Generation:

1. First Generation (1940 to 1956):

  • The first generation computers were developed by using vacuum tubes or thermionic valve machines.
  • The input of this system was based on punched cards and paper tape; however, the output was displayed on printouts.
  • The first generation computers worked on binary-coded concepts (i.e., language of 0-1). Examples: ENIAC, EDVAC, etc.

2. Second Generation (1956 to 1963):

  • The second generation computers were developed by using transistor technology.
  • In comparison to the first generation, the size of the second generation was smaller.
  • In comparison to computers of the first generation, the computing time taken by the computers of the second generation was lesser.

3. Third Generation (1963 to 1971):

  • The third generation computers were developed by using the Integrated Circuit (IC) technology.
  • n comparison to the computers of the second generation, the size of the computers of the third generation was smaller.
  • In comparison to the computers of the second generation, the computing time taken by the computers of the third generation was lesser.
  • The third-generation computer consumed less power and also generated less heat.
  • The maintenance cost of the computers in the third generation was also low.
  • The computer system of the computers of the third generation was easier for commercial use.

4. Fourth Generation (1972 to 2010):

  • The fourth generation computers were developed by using microprocessor technology.
  • By coming to the fourth generation, computers became very small in size, they became portable.
  • The machine of the fourth generation started generating a very low amount of heat.
  • It is much faster and its accuracy became more reliable.
  • The production cost was reduced to very low in comparison to the previous generation.
  • It became available for the common people as well.

5. Fifth Generation (2010 to till date):

  • By the time, the computer generation was being categorized on the basis of hardware only, but the fifth generation technology also included software.
  • The computers of the fifth generation had the high capability and large memory capacity.
  • Working with computers of this generation was fast and multiple tasks could be performed simultaneously.
  • Some of the popular advanced technologies of the fifth generation include Artificial intelligence, Quantum computation, Nanotechnology, Parallel processing, etc.
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