Give an example of reinforcement learning. Explain the types of ANN.

Reinforcement Learning is defined as a Machine Learning method that is concerned with how software agents should take actions in an environment. Reinforcement Learning is a part of the deep learning method that helps you to maximize some portion of the cumulative reward. Some of the autonomous driving tasks where reinforcement learning could be applied include trajectory optimization, motion planning, dynamic pathing, controller optimization, and scenario-based learning policies for highways. For example, parking can be achieved by learning automatic parking policies.

Following are the Types of ANN.

1. Feedforward Neural Network

The feedforward neural network is one of the most basic artificial neural networks. In this ANN, the data or the input provided travels in a single direction. It enters into the ANN through the input layer and exits through the output layer while hidden layers may or may not exist. So the feedforward neural network has a front propagated wave only and usually does not have backpropagation.

2. Recurrent Neural Network

The Recurrent Neural Network saves the output of a layer and feeds this output back to the input to better predict the outcome of the layer. The first layer in the RNN is quite similar to the feed-forward neural network and the recurrent neural network starts once the output of the first layer is computed. After this layer, each unit will remember some information from the previous step so that it can act as a memory cell in performing computations.

3. Convolutional Neural Network

A Convolutional neural network has some similarities to the feed-forward neural network, where the connections between units have weights that determine the influence of one unit on another unit. But a CNN has one or more than one convolutional layers that use a convolution operation on the input and then pass the result obtained in the form of output to the next layer. CNN has applications in speech and image processing which is particularly useful in computer vision.

4. Modular Neural Network

A Modular Neural Network contains a collection of different neural networks that work independently towards obtaining the output with no interaction between them. Each of the different neural networks performs a different sub-task by obtaining unique inputs compared to other networks. The advantage of this modular neural network is that it breaks down a large and complex computational process into smaller components, thus decreasing its complexity while still obtaining the required output.

5. Radial basis function Neural Network

Radial basis functions are those functions that consider the distance of a point concerning the center. RBF functions have two layers. In the first layer, the input is mapped into all the Radial basis functions in the hidden layer and then the output layer computes the output in the next step. Radial basis function nets are normally used to model the data that represents any underlying trend or function.

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