Writes short note of the following(any TWO)

a. Pragmatic Analysis

b. Unification and lifting

c. Turing test

 a.  Pragmatic Analysis

  • Pragmatic Analysis is part of the process of extracting information from text.
  • It focuses on taking a structured set of text and figuring out the actual meaning of the text.
  • It also focuses on the meaning of the words of the time and context.
  • Effects on interpretation can be measured using PA by understanding the communicative and social content.



  • Unification is a process of making two different logical atomic expressions identical by finding a substitution. Unification depends on the substitution process.
  • It takes two literals as input and makes them identical using substitution.
  • Let Ψ1 and Ψ2 be two atomic sentences and 𝜎 be a unifier such that, Ψ1𝜎 = Ψ2𝜎, then it can be expressed as UNIFY(Ψ1, Ψ2).
  • Example: Find the MGU for Unify{King(x), King(John)}

 C. Turing Test

The Turing Test is a method of inquiry in artificial intelligence (AI) for determining whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human being. The test is named after Alan Turing, the founder of the Turing Test and an English computer scientist, cryptanalyst, mathematician and theoretical biologist.

Turing proposed that a computer can be said to possess artificial intelligence if it can mimic human responses under specific conditions. The original Turing Test requires three terminals, each of which is physically separated from the other two. One terminal is operated by a computer, while the other two are operated by humans.

During the test, one of the humans functions as the questioner, while the second human and the computer function as respondents. The questioner interrogates the respondents within a specific subject area, using a specified format and context. After a preset length of time or number of questions, the questioner is then asked to decide which respondent was human and which was a computer.

The test is repeated many times. If the questioner makes the correct determination in half of the test runs or less, the computer is considered to have artificial intelligence because the questioner regards it as “just as human” as the human respondent.

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