Describe the working mechanism of DMA.

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Direct memory access (DMA) is a method that allows an input/output (I/O) device to send or receive data directly to or from the main memory, bypassing the CPU to speed up memory operations. The process is managed by a chip known as a DMA controller (DMAC).

DMA  are used to communicate data between the peripheral device and the system memory. All four system resources rely on certain lines on a bus. Some lines on the bus are used for IRQs, some for addresses (the I/O addresses and the memory address) and some for DMA .

A DMA  enables a device to transfer data without exposing the CPU to a work overload. Without the DMA , the CPU copies every piece of data using a peripheral bus from the I/O device. Using a peripheral bus occupies the CPU during the read/write process and does not allow other work to be performed until the operation is completed With DMA, the CPU can process other tasks while data transfer is being performed. The transfer of data is first initiated by the CPU. The data block can be transferred to and from memory by the DMAC in three ways.

In burst mode, the system bus is released only after the data transfer is completed. In cycle stealing mode, during the transfer of data between the DMA  and I/O device, the system bus is relinquished for a few clock cycles so that the CPU can perform other tasks. When the data transfer is complete, the CPU receives an interrupt request from the DMA controller. In transparent mode, the DMAC can take charge of the system bus only when it is not required by the processor. However, using a DMA controller might cause cache coherency problems. The data stored in RAM accessed by the DMA controller may not be updated with the correct cache data if the CPU is using external memory. Solutions include flushing cache lines before starting outgoing DMA transfers, or performing a cache invalidation on incoming DMA transfers when external writes are signaled to the cache controller.

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