Explain how pipelining is achieved in 8086 microprocessor.

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Pipelining is the process of accumulating instruction from the processor through a pipeline. It allows storing and executing instructions in an orderly process. It is also known as pipeline processing.

Pipelining is a technique where multiple instructions are overlapped during execution. Pipeline is divided into stages and these stages are connected with one another to form a pipe like structure. Instructions enter from one end and exit from another end.

Instruction Pipeline

In this a stream of instructions can be executed by overlapping fetchdecode and execute phases of an instruction cycle. This type of technique is used to increase the throughput of the computer system.

An instruction pipeline reads instruction from the memory while previous instructions are being executed in other segments of the pipeline. Thus we can execute multiple instructions simultaneously. The pipeline will be more efficient if the instruction cycle is divided into segments of equal duration.

Advantages of Pipelining

  1. The cycle time of the processor is reduced.
  2. It increases the throughput of the system
  3. It makes the system reliable.

Disadvantages of Pipelining

  1. The design of pipelined processor is complex and costly to manufacture.
  2. The instruction latency is more.
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