What do you mean by sampling? Explain non probability sampling with merits and demerits.

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When one by one study of all units of a population is not possible due to some factors like time, cost, manpower, resources and destructive nature of study, we take a small representative part from the population for the study. This small represenatative part selected for the study from the population is called sample.

The process of selecteding a sample from a population is called sampling.

For Example: A pathologist takes a syringe of blood as a sample to find out a disease.

Non-Probability Sampling Technique:

It is defined as the method of sampling technique in which each unit in a sample is selected on the basis of personal judgement. These are several non-random sampling methods for selecting samples from a population as:

  1. Judgement Sampling: sample unit are selected according to researchers or investigators personal judgement
  2. Convenience Sampling: sample unit are selected neither by probability nor by presonal judgement but by convenience
  3. Quota Sampling: in which any investigator is told to examine or enumerate a fixed number of units called quotas from each stratum
  4. Snowball Sampling: used in the case where it is different to reach into exact population. In this method, survey subjects are selected on referal from other survey respomdents.

Advantage of Non-Probability Sampling:

  • It is a more practical and conducive method for researchers that deploy surveys into the real world. Also, non-probability sampling can produce or interpret data in the form of numbers if properly done.
  • Responses are faster and cheaper because the sample is familiar to the researcher. So it saves time and resources.
  • With non-probability sampling, you can easily connect with your target population especially in an online community.
  • Non-probability sampling is also easy to use and you can also use it when you cannot conduct probability sampling perhaps because of a small population.

Disadvantage of Non-Probability Sampling:

  • A major disadvantage of non-probability sampling is that the researcher may be unable to evaluate if the population is well represented.
  • The researcher may be unable to calculate the intervals and the margin of error. This is why most researchers opt for probability sampling first.
  • You may also have an unclear sample size because there is no way to measure the boundaries of the relevant population to your research.
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