Unit 1: Introduction to Computer
1. What is a computer system? Explain the major components and characteristics of computers.
2. Differentiate between analog and digital computers. Why Hybrid computer is considered as combination of analog and digital computers?
3. Define data and information. How does a computer process data into information?
4. Explain the first generation of computer? What are the advantages of second generation of computer over first generation.
5. Discuss characteristics of third generation of computers. Compare it with fourth generation.
6. What is the goal of fifth generation of computer? Explain input-process-output concept with suitable diagram.
7. How are computers classified on the basis of their size? Explain with example.
8. Explain components of computer hardware with suitable diagram.
9. List any five applications of computer? How can we use IT in business and industry? Explain.
Unit 2: The Computer System Hardware
1. Explain how the CPU and memory work with suitable diagram.
2. What do you mean by microprocessor? Compare between RISC and CISC architecture.
3. Discuss the components of CPU with suitable diagram.
4. Define instruction. Explain instruction format with suitable example.
5. Explain RISC architecture. What are the advantages and disadvantages of RISC architecture?
6. Explain CISC architecture. What are the advantages and disadvantages of CISC architecture?
7. What do you mean by instruction set? Explain the steps of instruction cycle.
8. Why bus is used in computer? How internal/system bus differs form external/expansion bus?
9. Explain the role of control bus in computer. How address bus differs from data bus?
Unit 3: Computer Memory
1. What do you mean by memory unit? Explain memory hierarchy with diagram.
2. What is the function of memory? Differentiate between internal and external memory.
3. How many numbers of bytes are equivalent to 1 kilobyte? How sequential access differs from direct access?
4. What is the purpose of cache memory? List the types of secondary memory.
5. Define RAM, ROM, PROM, EPROM.
6. What is the purpose of CPU register? How EEPROM is different from EPROM and PROM..
7. How the computer uses its memory? Write all the steps.
8. Discuss the working mechanism of magnetic tape?
9. Discuss different secondary storage device in brief.
10. Differentiate between SRAM and DRAM. What are the types of ROM?
Unit 4: Input and Output Devices
1. What are the different types of output devices? Explain in brief.
2. What are the different types of input devices? Explain in brief.
3. Differentiate between mouse and trackball.
4. What is input devices? Discuss MICR. Differentiate between OCR and OMR.
5. Mention the use of plotter. How quality of printer is determined.
6. Explain the working mechanism of keyboard.
7. What is input devices? Differentiate between Human data entry device and Source data entry devices.
8. Define hard-copy and soft-copy output. Differentiate between impact and non-impact
printers with example.
9. What do you mean by I/O port? Differentiate between Parallel port and Serial port.
10. Explain the statement “Working of I/O system combines I/O hardware and I/O software”.
Unit 5: Data Representation
1. Define face value and position value of digit. Convert (10.4)10 to binary.
2. Differentiate between signed and unsigned number. Add (10111)2 with(01111)2.
3. Convert (AF7)16 to binary. Subtract (1001101)2 from (1100011)2.
4. Discuss the concept behind the fixed point number representation. What can be the fixed point representation of a signed number 8? Convert (14.14)10 into octal and Hexadecimal..
5. Explain floating point number representation. Convert (724.25)8 into decimal.
6. Differentiate between fixed point representation and floating point representation.
7. What is logic gate? Explain the type of basic gate with logic diagram and truth table.
8. Convert (110101.101010)2 into octal.
9. Convert the following decimal numbers into hexadecimal and octal number. a) 220 b) 1020
Unit 6: Computer Software
1. What is computer software? Differentiate between system software and application software with example.
2. What is system software? Explain system software for developing application software.
3. What is operating system? Discuss different functions of operating system in detail.
4. Why system software is needed in computer? Discuss various types of operating system.
5. What is the objective of using operating system? How operating system performs process, memory and file management activities.
6. Define linker and loader. Differentiate between compiler and interpreter.
7. What is application software? Describe general purpose software and specific purpose software with suitable example.
8. What is software acquisition? Explain the ways in which the software are made available to users?
9. What is real time operating system. Differentiate between machine language and high-level language.
Unit 7: Data Communication and Computer Network
1. Why do we need computer network? Discuss different types of network topologies along
with their merits and demerits.
2. What is data communication? Explain the components of data communication with example.
3. What do you mean by data transmission media. Differentiate between guided and unguided media.
4. What is twisted pair cable . How UTP differs from STP.
5. Explain different types of guided and unguided media in brief.
6. What is modulation? Discuss the need of modulation. What are the advantages of using optical fibers.
7. What is simplex mode. How half-duplex mode differs from full-duplex mode.
7. Define Analog signal and Digital signal? Differentiate between modulation and demodulation.
8. What do you mean by multiplexing and demultiplexing. Mention the different types of network architecture.
9. Describe the different types of computer network in brief.
10. Explain the different types of modulation with suitable figure.
11. What is the difference between synchronous and asynchronous communication. Explain wireless networking with example.
12. What is communication protocol. Discuss the OSI model with its layer.
13. What is switching? Differentiate packet switching from circuit switching.
14. What is point-to-point communication? Explain the following network devices: Repeater, Hub, Switch and Router.
15. Define computer network. Suppose you have a two story building having 15 computers in each of two floors. Now if you are asked to create a network of these computers, what type of network will you create? Give proper justification to your answer.
Unit 8: The Internet and Internet services
1. What do you mean by internet? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of internet.
2. What is internetworking? What do you mean by TCP/IP and how does it works?
3. Draw the diagram of the internet architecture. How local ISP differs from regional ISP.
4. List the governing bodies of internet. What are the requirements for connecting computer to the internet.
5. Define IP address with example. What are the benefits of using domain name?
7. What is domain name? Why is it different from IP address.
8. Explain the components of email address with suitable example. How will you compose, reply and forward an e-mail message?
9. What are the uses of internet. Explain the services of internet in brief.
10. How FTP works? Mention the significance of domain name in internet.
11. What do you mean by Internet of Things (IoT)? As an IT expert, mention the possible applications of IoT that you have observed in Nepal.
12. What are the components used in IoT? Differentiate between wearable computing and cloud computing.
13. What is E-governance? Explain the types of E-commerce models.
14. What is smart city? How a smart city works?
15. What is GIS? What are the components of GIS? How GIS works?.
16. List some activities that you can do Internet. Describe, how the world wide web (WWW) is different from the internet.
Unit 9: Fundamentals of database
1. What are the benefits of storing data using databases? Discuss three levels of database
system architecture in detail.
2. Discuss file processing and database processing. What are the benefits of using database processing over file processing.
3. Differentiate between centralized database system and distributed database system. State advantages and disadvantages of distributed system.
4. Explain the different types of database management systems with example.
5. What is the difference between procedural and non-procedural languages? What are the major characteristics of data in database?
6. What is database management system? Explain different levels of database services. Describe meaning, use and purpose of each level.
7. What is data model? How ER model can be used to create conceptual data model? Explain with example.
8. What is database system? How data can be stored using relational model.
9. Differentiate between DDL and DML. Who is database administrator and what are his responsibilities?
10. List the components of database system. Explain database applications.
11. Explain data warehouse with its characteristics and advantages.
12. What is Big Data? Explain Data Mining with its advantages.
Unit 10: Multimedia
1. What is multimedia? What are the characteristics of multimedia? Discuss.
2. What is multimedia? Discuss the applications of multimedia.
3. Explain the elements of multimedia with suitable example.
4. What is the difference between static elements and dynamic elements of multimedia? State advantages and disadvantages of multimedia.
Unit 11: Computer Security
1. Define cryptography. Discuss public key cryptography in detail.
2. What is security service? Define each of the term: Confidentiality, integrity and authentication.
3. What is malicious software? How virus differs from worms?
4. What is DoS attack? What are the goals of security?
5. What is security attack? Differentiate between passive attack and active attack.
6. Write short notes on:
a) Security Policy
b) Security Awareness
c) Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
7. What is security mechanism? Differentiate between private key cryptography and public key cryptography.
8. What is hash function? Explain the working mechanism of digital signature?
9. What is firewall? Explain the types of firewall.
10. Define identification and authentication. Explain virus, worms and trojan horse in brief.